Valuable online resources in Classics for reference, study aid, and research are so numerous that we have tried to limit ourselves here to sites likely to be particularly useful to students, including sites that can serve as starting points for further research and exploration. Sites are listed in two categories below: For Students of Greek and Latin and For All Students. For still more, see the list of Organizations, many of which provide or link to useful resources, sometimes including their own journals or newsletters.
For guidance in using and evaluating internet resources, consult the Classics faculty, librarians at Sawyer, and the Sawyer Library sites A-Z Databases and Research Guides. Note also that some of the most important online resources have a paywall and are fully accessible to Williams students, faculty and staff only because Sawyer Library or other departments of the college maintain subscriptions or oversee the sites. To gain full access to these resources while off-campus, you will need to use a proxy server.
For Students of Greek and Latin
Liddell and Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon (via Perseus)
Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary (via Perseus)
Autenrieth’s Homeric Dictionary (via Perseus)
Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar(via Perseus)
Gildersleeve’sGreek Syntax (via Perseus)
eLatin eGreek eLearn links to a great variety of on-line materials for studying ancient Greek and Latin, particularly at the introductory and intermediate levels.
Thesaurus Linguae Graecae has digitalized most literary texts from Homer to 1453 C.E.
For All Students
Perseus, the single most important site for all things Greek and for many things Roman. An extensive collection of images and of Greek and Latin texts,translations, essays and many other useful tools for studying ancient Greek and Latin language, literature, and culture.
Electronic Resources for Classicists: The Second Generation. A well organized, well maintained, and particularly helpful collection of direct links to collections of images, electronic publications, sites devoted to specific topics and individual authors, course materials, bibliographies, fonts and software, and much more.
Stoa, a consortium for online publication in the humanities that links directly to a number of valuable sites, for instance: Suda-On-Line, Ancient City of Athens, Demos (on the workings of democracy in classical Athens); Metis (QTVR panoramas of Greek archaeological sites and monuments).
The Perseus Atlas.
Hellenic History on the Internet, a useful overview of Hellenic history and culture from the Stone Age to the present
Athenian Agora Excavations, up-to-date information on the excavations; maps, diagrams, QTVR virtual reality movies, and links to very useful publications, like “Pots and Pans in the Athenian Agora” or “Socrates in the Athenian Agora,” that are available online and in downloadable pdf’s.
Ancient City of Athens, images with essays and links to information about Athens.
The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites.
The Perseus Site Catalogue, which extends and updates the material in PECS.
The Visual Resources Center of Williams Department of Art, with links to ARTstor and other resources.
Labyrinth: an Online WWW Server for Medieval Studies.
Most of the numerous sites dedicated to individual authors, to specialized topics, areas, and methods of study, or to particular historical periods, peoples or languages can be discovered via sites like those above. Here is a sampling of sites you could quickly find:
The Cicero Homepage
Philo of Alexandria
Plutarch’s home on the Web
Homosexuality in Greece and Rome: A Sourcebook of Basic Documents. The first two chapters of the book edited by T. K. Hubbard, text and images.
Egyptology, links to e-resources from the UCLA Egyptology Department.
Antique Roman Dishes (food and recipes)
The Papyrology Homepage
Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts
The American Numismatic Society provides a database on Greek and Roman coins.
The Virtual Catalogue of Roman Coins
The Roman Numismatic Gallery
Some of the sites listed above provide or link to bibliographies, but the following include some major, particularly useful resources for bibliography:
L’Annee philologique, an index to work published since 1924 in fields related to the language, literature, history and culture of ancient Greece and Rome, is the standard bibliographical tool for research in Classics. The online electronic version covers the years 1949-2005.
Gnomon on-line, for recent books and journal articles in Classics.
TOCS-INoffers a searchable database of articles of interest to classicists from 1984 on.
Bryn Mawr Classical Review publishes online reviews (often review essays) of recent books in all areas of Classics. As an online journal which publishes unsolicited reviews, BMCR may publish several reviews of the same book and sometimes generates a bit of back-and-forth among reviewers, and it publishes reviews of books likely to be of wide interest in a more timely fashion than traditional journals do, as well as more reviews on esoteric books.
Index of published volumes of ANRW (Aufsteig und Niedergang der romischen Welt).
The On-Line Survey of Audio-Visual Resources for Classics.
Pinax On-Line, an annotated list of bibliographies on the ancient Greek world.
For more bibliographies on Greek and Roman literature, history and culture, and on individual authors and specific topics, go to More Online Bibliographies.
More Online Bibliographies
Greek and Roman literature
- Aeschylus (includes works through the mid-80’s)
- Apollonius of Rhodes (From A Hellenistic Bibliography, by Martijn Cuypers. On this main page, you’ll find links to more selective versions of the Apollonius bibliography.)
- Aristophanes (includes works through the mid-80’s)
- Aristotle, Poetics (By Malcolm Heath)
- Bacchylides (By Ilja Leonard Pfeijffer, Classics Dept. at the Univ. of Leiden)
- Callimachus (From A Hellenistic Bibliography, by Martijn Cuypers.)
- Euclid (From the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive)
- Euripides and Tragic Theatre in the Late Fifth Century.
- Euripides Medea (by C. A. E. Luschnig)
- Hesiod Theogony (From the institut de préhistoire et des sciences de l’antiquité )
- Homer (By M. P. Cuypers)
- Josephus (from PACE: Project on Ancient Cultural Engagement)
- Menander (From Case Western Reserve’s Classics Department)
- Pindar bibliography (From A Hellenistic Bibliography, by Martijn Cuypers.)
- Plato, Symposium (by Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Bryn Mawr College)
- Plotinus (By Pierre Thillet)
- Plotinian Bibliography From 2000-present (By Richard Dufour)
- Plutarch (From Chaironeia: Plutarch’s Home on the Web)
- Sophocles (includes works through the mid-80’s)
- Thucydides (By Lowell Edmunds of Rutgers University‘s Classics Dept.)
- A Hellenistic Bibliography contains links to bibliographies of fourteen Hellenistic Greek authors, four Roman authors, and other Hellenistic links. (By Martijn Cuypers)
- Nestor is “An international bibliography of pre-classical Greece (paleolithic to Homer and beyond), eastern Mediterranean and Southeastern European prehistory, Homeric society, Indo-European linguistics and related fields” (description taken from Electronic Resources for Classicists). You may want to go right to a search. Nestor is published by the Department of Classics , Univ. of Cincinnati.
- Chloris: a Bronze Age Aegean Bibliography. This is a searchable database which covers mainland Greece, Crete, and the Cyclades.
- Minoan Religion, a detailed bibliography organized by sub-topic, from Prehistoric Archaeology of the Aegean, a web-project of Dartmouth College.
- Bibliography of Bronze Age through Archaic Greek and Eastern Mediterranean art.
Culture and society
- Daily Life in Classical Antiquity – General Bibliography, compiled by John Porter.
- Parallels and Connections Between the Hellenic, Semitic, and Anatolian Cultures
- The Black Presence in Antiquity, compiled by Leida I. Torres and Andrea Only of the Morland-Springern Research Center at Howard University.
- Childhood in Antiquity, by Meir Bar Ilan
- Greek Costume Bibliography. Includes citations of works on ancient textiles, weaving, clothing manufacture, clothing styles, etc.
- Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean: Online Bibliographies
- War and Peace in Classical Antiquity, by Rob S. Rice.
- Homosexuality in Greece and Rome
Women in the ancient world
Religion, ritual, and magic
Science and technology
- The Fall of the Roman Empire, a bibliography by Lucinda Neuru in support of her course on the subject.
- Lead and the Fall of Rome, compiled by Steve Muhlberger from contributions to the list LT-ANTIQ.
- Late Roman Food Supply, compiled by Lars Lordahl and Steve Muhlberger with the help of the LT-ANTIQ discussion list.
- Short Bibliography of Recent Studies on Roman Demography in English by Thomas Anderson.
- Roman Domestic Architecture, by Joshua Brandt. There are two versions of this bibliography: one with works only in English, and a “full” version.
- Ancient Greek & Roman Music, Selected Bibliography. Prepared by Prof. Nancy Sultan, Illinois Wesleyan University.
- The Roman Army.
Categories include General Works, Texts, Legions, Auxilia, Officers, Centurions, Optiones, Recruitment, Finance, Campaigns, Battles, and Military Areas, Army Life, Logistics, Training, The Roman Navy, Discharge, III Century Crisis, and Later, Other Items.
- Roman army bibliography, by Sander van Dorst.
- The Development of the Roman Navy, by Thomas P. Roche.
- Roman Law, by Bernard J. Hibbitts, The University of Pittsburgh School of Law.
- Roman Criminal Law, by François Lareau.
- Coinage of Greece and Rome: A Bibliography. Extensive and well-organized. From the Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Warwick.
- Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. – 1643 C.E., from the Internet East Asian Source Book.
Greek and Latin language
- Greek Rhetoric and Prose Style Bibliography, from the home page of Hardy Hansen’s course, Greek Rhetoric and Prose Style.
- Bibliography of Ancient Greek Linguistics, an extensive and well-organized bibliography by Michel Buijs of the University of Utrecht.
- Bibliography of Papyrology, organized by sub-topic. You may also download the complete bibliography as an MS Word file. By Traianos Gagos.
- Bibliography: Greek Grammar and Linguistics, by Rodney J. Decker. This bibliography concentrates primarily on New Testament Greek.
- Brief bibliography of Latin linguistics, by Philip Baldi.
- Latin Therapy: Bibliography of Latin Language Resources, from Cambridge University’s Department of History and Philosophy of Science. This bibliography focuses on the Latin technical terminology of various fields of Roman studies, such as mathematics, geography, scholastics, etc.
- Bibliography of the History of Latin Pronunciation. by Peter Jeffery of Princeton University.
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Many books and articles have been written about Ennius’s life, works, and (not only literary) beliefs. In this section, readers may find works of different kinds (encyclopedias, lexika, handbooks, etc.) that provide an overall treatment of Ennius. Skutsch 1905, Jocelyn 1972, Suerbaum 1997, and Jocelyn and Manuwald 2016, are lemmata on Ennius within encyclopedic works on classical antiquity. Cuyper’s Ennius entry registers works published on Hellenistic literature which also deals with Roman poetry. Von Albrecht 1996 and Conte 1999 are handbooks of Latin literature which present a thorough and interesting treatment of Ennius’s literary career. The introductions to two major critical editions, that of the tragedies (Jocelyn 1967) and that of the Annals (Skutsch 1985) contain all the most important information on topics both general and specific about the two genres of tragedy and epic.
Conte, Gian Biagio. 1999. Latin literature: A history. Translated by Joseph B. Solodow. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.
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Conte’s history of Latin literature (originally in Italian) is one of the most acclaimed handbooks on the subject. Its entries are very clearly written and summarize information and scholarship on both historical or biographical information and authors’ literary production and poetics. See “Ennius,” pp. 73–84. Revised by Don Fowler and Glenn W. Most.
Cuypers, Martine. Ennius. In A Hellenistic Bibliography.
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A constantly updated database on Hellenistic poetry, including Roman poets who were influenced by it, such as Ennius.
Jocelyn, Henry David. Ennius (Q. Ennius). 1967. The tragedies of Ennius: The fragments. Edited by Henry David Jocelyn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
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Jocelyn’s introduction (pp. 3–63) to his own edition of Ennius’s tragedies (see Jocelyn 1967, cited under Plays) serves as a general discussion on how Ennius fits in the history of both Greek and Roman drama, and provides information on his literary activity and poetics.
Skutsch, Otto. Ennius (Q. Ennius). 1985. The Annals of Q. Ennius. Oxford: Clarendon.
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The reference edition for Ennius’s Annals (see Skutsch 1985 cited under Annals), it has a thorough introduction (pp. 1–69) which covers biographical, literary, and linguistic questions both general and specific about Ennius. It is certainly a good place to start and a necessary reading. Includes introduction and commentary.
Jocelyn, Henry David. 1972. The poems of Quintus Ennius. Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt 1.2. Edited by Hildegard Temporini, 987–1026.
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The Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt (ANRW) series is known for its reliability and thoroughness. This article in English by one of the major Ennianists of the 20th century is a thorough encyclopedic introduction to Ennius and his literary activity.
Jocelyn, Henry David, and Gesine Manuwald. 2016. Ennius. In the Oxford Classical Dictionary. Edited by Sander Goldberg. Digital Ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780199381135.013.2411E-mail Citation »
Presents a quick introduction to Ennius by two of the most important scholars of Ennian and Archaic Latin studies (in the previous editions it was only Jocelyn’s work, Manuwald has now revised it). Originially published in 2012, in the Oxford Classical Dictionary, edited by Simon Hornblower, Anthony Spawforth, and Esther Eidinow, 525b-526b, 4th ed. (Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press).
Mariotti, Scevola. 1967. Q. Ennius. In Der Kleine Pauly. Vol. 2. Edited by Konrat Ziegler, Walther Sontheimer, and Hans Gärtner, 270–276. Munich: Druckenmüller.
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Mariotti updated the entry on Ennius for the new concise edition of the bigger Pauly-Wissowa encyclopedia, where the corresponding entry was written by Franz Skutsch (Skutsch 1905).
Skutsch, Franz. 1905. Ennius. In Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Vol. 5. Edited by August Friedrich Pauly and Georg Wissowa, 2589–2628.
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The first modern encyclopedic entry (in German) on Ennius, it is very thorough but is based on scholarship that has been largely updated afterwards. Also referred to as Pauly-Wissowa or RE.
Suerbaum, Werner. 1997. Q. Ennius. In Der Neue Pauly. Vol. 3. Edited by Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider, 1040–1046. Stuttgart: Metzler.
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Agile yet thorough introduction to Ennius and Ennian scholarship by a leading Ennius scholar within the more recent and “simplified” edition of the Pauly-Wissowa. While this printed edition is in German, the online version can be accessed by subscription in both German and English via Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World.
von Albrecht, Michael. 1996. Ennius. In A history of Roman literature: From Livius Andronicus to Boethius, with special regard to its influence on world literature. Vol. 1. By Michael von Albrecht, 129–146. Leiden, The Netherlands, and New York: Brill.
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Von Albrecht’s history of Latin literature is a reference handbook that can be used for both intermediate and advanced levels. Besides a “standard” handbook presentation, it also provides sections on literary “Ideas” and “Influence,” as well as a selective bibliography pertinent to the presentation adopted. The original German edition was published in 1992.