Why School is Hard for Kids with ADHD—and How You Can Help
By Anna Stewart
“Can we talk about Daniel,” you say to your child’s teacher, a knot of fear in your belly. “He’s starting to say that he hates school and it’s stupid.”
“I wanted to talk to you, too,” the teacher says. “Daniel’s behavior in class and on the playground is very concerning.”
Now that knot is in your throat as you think, “What did he do now?” The big fears run through your mind:
“Will he stay in school?”
“Will school let him stay?”
“If he can’t turn in his homework now, in third grade, how will he ever keep a job?”
“If he keeps getting sent to the principal’s office, how will he learn to read and write?”
When a child is struggling at school, it hurts. When it’s a child with ADD or ADHD, the pain can create lifelong wounds.
Daniel has ADHD and he is not alone. Researchers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that between 2007 and 2009, an average of nine percent of children between the ages of five and seventeen were diagnosed with the disorder. Think about how that number impacts schools. Nearly one in ten kids has ADHD, which means practically every classroom in America will haveone to three kids with the disorder in them. That’s a lot of impulsivity, distractibility, hyperactivity and organizational/planning issues in one room. It’s also a lot of potential for behavioral challenges, conflicts and concerns, creating a perfect storm of issues for kids with ADHD and ADD—and the teachers responsible for educating them.
If your child or teen has a diagnosis of ADHD and/or a learning disability, then you already know that school –with all the expectations to follow the rules and perform—is difficult for unique thinkers, and it gets more challenging each year. While each child is unique and should have an individualized approach to treatment and management of their ADHD, there are some universal elements that make school hard to navigate. Getting teachers to agree to changing their classroom or teaching style is often challenging.
As a public school based advocate for kids with behavioral and learning disabilities I know how hard ADHD issues can be for kids, families and teachers. I’m going to tell you a little bit about what it’s like for ADHD kids at school, what to do when your child zones out or panics, and also give you real strategies and tips for helping them find greater success at school.
What It’s Like to Live without a Filter
The ability to filter out sensory input is both innate and learned. Children with ADHD haven’t learned how to be selective about what comes in so it all comes in—the hum of the overhead lights, the birds outside, the truck driving by, their classmate kicking their chair, the teacher talking, the scent of uneaten lunches in the cubbies and the reflection of the light on the aquarium. And most if it goes right out because it does not get put into your ADHD child’s long-term memory. Your child really doesn’t know what the teacher just told them to do. They want to know, they tried to know but it didn’t stick. The brain can only take in about 2,000 bits of information per second. That sounds like a lot, but it really isn’t because only a little can get through. Unfortunately, when it’s filled up with birds, fans, wet coats, and shadows, what the teacher wants you to pay attention to gets squeezed out.
What’s more, the brain selects what comes in based on survival value. Say a fox emerges from his den and looks around. He knows the trees and grasses around him but the hawk overhead and the mouse nearby are new. Which will he focus on? Not the food, but the threat. He will wait until the hawk has passed before going for his breakfast. Now imagine this is a child and he can’t tell which is which. This will increase his anxiety so even less input comes in, causing decision-making to become reactive. The end result is that your child just wants to get out of there. Not a good state for learning, is it?
Students always pay attention, but not always to what the teacher or parent wants them to select. Here are a few tips to help the desired input to come in:
TIP:Limit distractions. Keep distractions and variables around your child to a minimum while he’s studying . Ask the teacher if he can use headphones or an iPod during test time. Perhaps his desk can face a blank wall, or he might be allowed to wear a hat or hoodie in class. Kids with ADHD should stay away from windows and doors and things to watch if possible. All of these can be done at home as well as at school.
TIP: Use novelty to engage curiosity. If getting your child to pay attention is a challenge during homework time, you can do something different — put on a hat, walk backwards towards your child, or set them up on a beanbag or on the trampoline outside, ask them to sing the alphabet at random or use other ‘fun surprises’ to refocus. Don’t do it every day or you will wear yourself out but you could have Monday Madness for instance so your child knows that something different will happen that day. Hopefully, she or he will start using some of the techniques themselves.
TIP: Plan transitions in advance. For kids who get upset by transitions or new or unexpected activities, partner with the child and her teacher to plan in advance or to have them do it with the teacher. Don’t surprise them with changes if possible.
Fight, Flight—or Freeze?
Now you know that Daniel can’t filter out the input that he doesn’t need, you can see that all that input can easily swirl around in his brain and then just as easily, swirl right back out. The ability to allow the info needed to enter the brain is the first step to learning. When the input is too much, the higher functioning parts of the brain lose control, anxiety takes over and the reacting is Flight, Fight—or Freeze. In a child this usually looks like acting out or zoning out. The brain is saying, “This is too hard, and the chance for success is too low, so I’ll just stop trying.” You can see this is a key place for “behaviors” to occur. Here are some ways to combat that reaction:
TIP: Get the brain to engage curiosity. Connect the lesson to something the child is interested in. Make a beton what the outcome might be. The brain loves to be right—it feels great to set things up to have the student care about the outcome. Parents can do this by getting a syllabus from the teacher and getting related books and movies, checking out YouTube videos, or going to museums or locations that support the study unit. You can also make a bet with your child (it sounds odd but it really works) about what they will learn or what grade they will get. Pay out so the brain will experience pleasure.
Related: ADHD Infographic-Do ADHD Kids Have “Dimmer Prospects” in life?
TIP: Create achievable challenges with frequent, positive feedback. Elements include having a consistent process in place that provides a safe learning environment and rewards for good work. All adults need to have similar expectations so there is a predictable understanding of expectations.
TIP: Simplify instructions. Simplify instructions by breaking down assignments or chores into manageable steps for homework or classroom work. Use multiple ways to share the information including outlines, lists, and graphic organizers. Parents have reported success with using music and dancing or playing catch while memorizing multiplication tables or state capitols. It engages the brain’s pleasure center—and the movement and songs/chants use a different part of the brain. You can also teach your child how to access information by quietly tapping their foot to retrieve it.
Real Strategies That Can Help Your Child Be More Successful
School is hard for students like Daniel. They have to be explicitly taught how to self-regulate, filter sensory input, hold learning in long-term memory—and all the while made to feel safe, engaged, and hopeful. It’s a tall order.
An often overlooked strategy that can increase success is working with the child themselves. Most kids with ADHD are sensitive, self-aware and very creative thinkers. Ask the child what they need to make school work better. It may not be what adults would suggest, so be open and willing to problem-solve together. Here are some quick tips:
TIP: Start with one small thing with a high probability for success. If academics cause your child a lot of stress, consider opportunities at school that are not during work time such as at recess or during music or art. Maybe they could be in charge of the soccer ball or jump ropes that go from the classroom out to recess and bring them back. Look for simple things that give them a sense of purpose and belonging.
TIP: Engage the teacher in the process. Work with the teacher to ensure there are positive feedback systems in place. Before talking to your child’s teacher, consider the teacher’s perspective and approach her or him with compassion and appreciation, rather than frustration, blame or anger. Put yourself in the teacher’s shoes first.
TIP: Supply your child’s teacher with a list. One successful strategy I have seen when teachers are feeling overwhelmed by a child’s behavioral needs is to give them a list of 10 or so strategies that work at home and allow them to choose which ones to try. That means you have to be okay with the list of ideas and not attached to which ones they choose. You can also ask for a meeting in 6-8 weeks after they have tried some things and then discuss what did and didn’t work and bring out the list again. Bite-sized pieces of information are usually easier to receive and use than a full book, especially to a busy teacher.
TIP: Link pleasure with learning. Fill up the child’s brain with pleasurable, engaging, successful activities outside of school and try to link the two together whenever you can. Many kids with ADHD are drawn to computer and video games. They offer immediate feedback, a clear purpose, lots of visual engagement and an external way to regulate. With your child, look for cool educationally based games and then offer your own feedback (not praise) about how their performance in the game is similar to their school work. Choosing games with your child will increase their investment to actually use the game.
There are many factors all wound together that impact a child’s school experience. By understanding them, you can begin to influence them and work with the school staff to make school work for your child.
When a child is struggling at school, it hurts. When it’s a child with ADHD, the pain can create lifelong wounds. There are many Daniels in our schools and communities, and it’s up to us to change the things we can do to make it work better. We can change our understanding, our expectations, our habits and our beliefs. Kids with ADHD are not lazy, willful or stupid. They are simply people who happen to think differently and learn uniquely. By changing our classrooms and living rooms to make it easier for them to show us their brilliance, we are creating a welcoming place for our kids with ADHD.
ADHD teens and driving
Three areas -- driving, homework, and alcohol/drugs -- are areas that may spark a fire between the parents of a teen with ADHD and their child. It is appropriate that parents anticipate and formulate a plan to address these issues with their adolescent.
Motor-vehicle accidents are the number-one cause of death in children 16-20 years of age. Approximately 63% of the deaths are drivers; the remainder of those killed are passengers. Driving requires focus, concentration, good judgment, and the ability to adapt to sudden and often unpredictable changes in the immediate environment. The younger the driver the more likely a lack of experience and behavioral immaturity will result in risk-taking behaviors. It is imperative that parents lay out concrete concepts and consequences for their young ADHD driver. These might include the following:
- Driving is a privilege. It needs to be earned and may be forfeited for infractions.
- A teen with ADHD must take his medication.
- Limit passengers for the first six to 12 months of driving -- only family members (including siblings).
- Limit rush-hour, freeway, and late-night driving for the first six months of driving. Practice with parents to gain the necessary skills for such a high-stakes environment.
- Consider a no cell phone, CD, or music car environment; all of these elements provide distraction to an equal degree. Hands-free cell usage is not superior in safety when compared with non-hands-free cell phone use.
ADHD teens, school, and homework
Middle school and high school can be a minefield to effectively negotiate for teens regardless of whether they have to deal with the effects of ADHD or not. Part of the issue is the "nature of the beast." Students must learn how to effectively deal with multiple teachers who believe that their subject is the linchpin holding the teen's entire academic experience together. Likewise, the usual lack of integration of the school curriculum may be another hurdle to overcome. Parents should be their child's advocate with his or her teacher. Establish a good rapport and communication between your child's teacher and yourself. This implies a give and take regarding their adolescent's ADHD diagnosis, possible side effects of his/her medication, and informing the teacher of any comorbid learning disorders and learning styles (for example, visual vs. auditory) which will promote success. Often such information and teacher feedback may be exchanged using a school's email system. At home, parents can strive to maximize an effective learning environment. Organize an area for homework and limit distractions. Provide structure with consistency for start and finish times. Several studies have demonstrated that one hour of vigorous physical activity after school and before starting homework allows for more efficient use of time, quicker mastery of the material, and improvement in accuracy in subjects requiring calculations. (Simply put -- the ADHD teen needs to "burn off" his or her extra energy.) Since nothing succeeds like success, praise your teen when they have worked hard and done their best.
Teens with ADHD and their parents may note that homework projects are often much more challenging from 7:00 p.m. and later. Often their medication effectiveness has waned to minimal. Speak with your teen's pediatrician. One option is to take a short-acting (three- to four-hour duration) version of the same medication taken in the morning. Taking this preparation at about 6 p.m. will enable continued effectiveness for academics but should not interfere with dinner appetite or sleep patterns.
While the natural inclination of a parent is to intercede to resolve problems between their ADHD teen and an instructor, a better long-term strategy involves the student and teacher discussing the problematic issues without the direct input of others. Teens need to learn how to present their case in a rational way. Such an approach will guard against a parent from being trapped between their teen and the teacher. There are always two sides to any story. Better results usually occur when the discussion is restricted to the two principal parties involved. Otherwise parents may become the victims of hearsay.