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Roxbury is a dissolved municipality and a currently officially recognized neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.[1]

Roxbury is one of 23 official neighborhoods of Boston used by the city for neighborhood services coordination. The city asserts that Roxbury serves as the "heart of Black culture in Boston."[2] Roxbury was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630, and became a city in 1846 until annexed to Boston on January 5, 1868.[3]

The original boundaries of the Town of Roxbury can be found in Drake's History of Roxbury and its noted Personages. Those boundaries include the Christian Science Center, the Prudential Center (built on the old Roxbury Railroad Yards) and everything south and east of the Muddy River including Symphony Hall, Northeastern University, Boston Latin School, Madison Park Technical Vocational High SchoolJohn D. O'Bryant School of Mathematics & Science, Roxbury Community College YMCA, Harvard Medical School and many hospitals and schools in the area. This side of the Muddy River is Roxbury, the other side is Brookline and Boston. Franklin Park, once entirely within Roxbury when Jamaica Plain, West Roxbury and Roslindale were villages within the town of Roxbury until 1854, has been divided with the line between Jamaica Plain and Roxbury located in the vicinity of Peter Parley Road on Walnut Avenue, through the park to Columbia Road. Here, Walnut Avenue changes its name to Sigourney Street, indicating the area is now Jamaica Plain. One side of Columbia Road is Roxbury, the other Dorchester. Melnea Cass Boulevard is located approximately over the Roxbury Canal that brought boats into Roxbury, bypassing the busy port of Boston in the 1830s.

The neighborhood has recently added a new police station improving response time assisting its residents. This facility opened in 2011 and is energy efficient. Also assisting the community are programs such as the Child Services of Roxbury, the youth build Boston programs, and many more. New initiatives by the city of Boston have propelled the neighborhood of Boston to become eco-friendly. There has been development of new E+ buildings. Along with the move into an eco-friendly community, each building is now mandated to provide accessibility to people with handicaps.

The neighborhood has also formed community gardens and developed the first urban farm of the city in accordance to the adoption of article 89, Urban Agricultural Ordinance, which provides framework for creating community resources for fresh produce, to be sold at low cost, and also to be donated to programs who help feed those who are in shelters or other care facilities alike.[4] There are also many emergency response facilities who help underprivileged people in the area, such as youth centers, and social service centers.

When it was a separate municipality, Roxbury was part of Norfolk County; it is now part of Suffolk County.

Colonial origin[edit]

The Massachusetts Bay Colony founded a group of six towns, including Boston, Cambridge, and Roxbury.[5] For more than 200 years, Roxbury also encompassed West Roxbury and Jamaica Plain.[5] Three miles south, the only land route to the capital led through Roxbury, which made the town important for both transportation and trade.[5] Roxbury in the 1600s also held many of the resources that the Colonists prized: potentially arable land, timber, and a brook (source of water and water power), and stone for building.[6] That particular stone exists only in the Boston basin; it is visible on stony outcroppings and used in buildings such as the Warren House, and it proved to be a valuable asset to the community that led to early prosperity. The village of Roxbury was originally called "Rocksberry"[7] for the rocks in its soil that made early farming a challenge. It is noted for its hilly geography and many large outcroppings of Roxbury Puddingstone, which was quarried for many years and used in the foundations of a large number of houses in the area.

The settlers of Roxbury originally comprised the congregation of the First Church in Roxbury, established in 1632.[8] During this time, the church served as a place of worship and as a meeting place for town government. The congregation had no time to raise a meeting house the first winter and so met with the neighboring congregation in Dorchester. One of the early leaders of this church was Amos Adams, and among the founders were Richard Dummer and his wife Mary.[9] The first meeting house was built in 1632, and the building pictured here is the fifth meeting house, the oldest such wood-frame church in Boston.[10]

Boston was previously connected to mainland Massachusetts by a narrow isthmus called Boston Neck or Roxbury Neck,[11] and this was home to a number of early leaders of the colony, including original Massachusetts Bay Colony treasurer William Pynchon. Pynchon left Roxbury in 1636 with nearly one third its men to found Springfield, Massachusetts on far less rocky and more arable soil.[12] Within a few decades, Roxbury residents developed prized apple orchards, and this led to another unique claim to fame: the Roxbury Russet apple, particularly suited for cider.

Revolutionary War and following[edit]

The First Church of Roxbury was the starting point for William Dawes' "Midnight Ride" of April 18, 1775 (in a different direction from that of Paul Revere) to warn Lexington and Concord of the British raids at the opening of the American Revolutionary War. After the war, those able to afford it sought to live in free-standing, single-family houses away from their jobs in the city, and this led to Roxbury becoming one of the first American suburbs.[6] Many homes were built in the Greek Revival style, symbolizing the republic of ancient Greece, a democracy that the young United States admired.[13]

Trade was booming in the early 1800s in rum, salt, fish, and tobacco which brought in a horse-drawn carriage line across Boston Neck and down Washington Street, as well as the Boston to Providence, Rhode Island railroad in 1835.[6] Many Irish immigrants flooded to Massachusetts to escape the potato famine in the 1840s, and some families settled directly in Roxbury. St. Joseph's Catholic Church was the first Catholic Church with a predominantly Irish congregation, built in 1846. Some of the homes of these wealthy residents still stand today, such as the Edward Everett Hale House on Morley Street, the Alvah Kittredge Mansion on Linwood Street, the Spooner Lambert House on Dudley Street, Rockledge on Highland St., and Ionic Hall on Roxbury Street. Oakbend was the last mansion built in Roxbury in 1872; it now houses the National Center of Afro-American Artists. The neighborhood also contains an example of workers’ housing at Frederick Douglass Square Historic District (Greenwich, Warwick, and Sussex streets), brick houses built in the 1880s.[13] As the need increased for more workers, old farms and the estates were subdivided, and single family homes, row houses, and multi-family homes sprang up to accommodate the growing population with the advent of trolley service in 1887.[6] One of these was Hibernian Hall, built in 1913, which is now the Roxbury Center of the Arts.

20th Century[edit]

Many Germanimmigrants also immigrated to the US in the early 1900's, quite possibly to escape the effects of the first World War. German immigrants also settled in the Mission Hill area of Roxbury, and were instrumental in developing the many breweries that prospered along the Stony Brook until prohibition. In the early 20th century, a Jewishcommunity was also established. Responding to the need for increased municipal services, the citizens of Roxbury voted to incorporate as a city in 1846, and later to become annexed to Boston in 1868. During the 1940s and 1950s, a major migration from the southern to the northern cities led Roxbury towards becoming the center of the African-Americancommunity in Boston. They were joined by immigrants from the Caribbean, especially Jamaica and Barbados and after World War II by southern blacks migrating north.[13] During this population boom, city planners set aside land for Franklin Park—with 527 acres it is the largest park Boston. Designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Franklin Park is the final jewel of the Emerald Necklace, the seven mile stretch of public parkland that begins at Boston Common.[5]Social issues and the resulting urban renewal activities of the 1960s and 1970s led to a decline in the neighborhood population, as racism caused a significant white flight. The reason for such a large immigration was mostly due to visionary African-AmericanleaderW. E. B. Du Bois who inspired people to various parts of the world in search of their dreams of freedom and equality.[13]

Lower Roxbury[edit]

Lower Roxbury was once the name of the thriving area from Dudley Street to Tremont Street with bustling businesses up and down Ruggles Street. Around 1965, one side of Ruggles Street was small shops and the other side was decorated with tenement style and single family housing.[14] At the corner of Douglas Square and Tremont Street was one notable shop called People's Market; the first supermarket in Boston located in a black area.[15] In 1986, the Greater Roxbury Incorporation Project sought to create a 12.5 square-mile city that included the entirety of Roxbury and Mattapan as well as portions of Dorchester, Jamaica Plain, Fenway, Columbia Point and the South End that was to be called "Mandela" after Nelson Mandela.[16] In 1988, a referendum was defeated that would have examined the feasibility of reincorporation because the organizers of the movement believed that the area would flourish if they could create their own government that would not discriminate against minorities.[17]

Industry[edit]

In the 1600s, most people were farming or living off the land. In the 1700s mills and tanneries made up the main industry of Roxbury, but by the 1800s breweries, piano makers, ironfoundries and rubber makers provided employment for a growing Roxbury population.[18] By the turn of the 20th century, the area was a bustling mix of department stores, hotels, silentmovie theaters, banks-even a bowling alley- designed by prominent Bostonarchitects in a rich mixture of revival styles.[18] As the marshes were filled in, factories and warehouses took their place. Nowadays, most spaces are used for office or retail stores since the community holds an emphasis on keeping jobs within the neighborhood and promoting jobs for youth.

Urban policy[edit]

As Roxbury developed in the 19th century, the northern part became an industrial town with a large community of English, Irish, and Germanimmigrants and their descendants, while the majority of the town remained agricultural and saw the development of some of the first streetcar suburbs in the United States. This led to the incorporation of the old Roxbury village as one of Massachusetts's first cities, and the rest of the town was established as the town of West Roxbury.

In the early 20th century, Roxbury became home to recent immigrants; a thriving Jewish community developed around Grove Hall, along Blue Hill Avenue, Seaver Street and into Dorchester along Columbia Road. A large Irish population also developed, with many activities centered around Dudley Square, which just before and following annexation into Boston, became a central location for Roxbury commerce. Following a massive migration from the South to northern cities in the 1940s and 1950s, Roxbury became the center of the African-American community in Boston. The center of African American residential and social activities in Boston had formerly been on the north slope of Beacon Hill and the South End. In particular, a riot in response to the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. resulted in stores on Blue Hill Avenue being looted and eventually burned down, leaving a desolate and abandoned landscape which discouraged commerce and business development. Rampant arson in the 1970s along the Dudley Street corridor also added to the neighborhood's decline, leaving a landscape of vacant, trash filled lots and burned out buildings. In early April 1987, the original Orange Line MBTA route along Washington Street was closed and relocated to the Southwest Corridor (where the Southwest Expressway was supposed to be built a couple decades before). More recently, grassroots efforts by residents have been the force behind revitalizing historic areas and creating Roxbury Heritage State Park.

A movement known as the Greater Roxbury Incorporation Project, led by Roxbury residents Andrew Jones[19] and Curtis Davis,[20][21] sought to form an independent municipality out of the Roxbury and the Mattapan area.[22][23] The project was part of a larger goal to increase the amount of services available to residents, but in 1986 Boston Mayor Raymond Flynn rejected the idea.[24][25] The area was to be named "Mandela" (after South African activist Nelson Mandela).[26]

The Boston Transportation Planning Review stimulated relocation of the Orange Line, and development of the Southwest Corridor Park spurred major investment, including Roxbury Community College at Roxbury Crossing and Ruggles Center at Columbus Avenue and Ruggles Street. Commercial development now promises reinvestment in the form of shopping and related consumer services. The Fort Hill section experienced significant gentrification when college students (many from Northeastern University and Wentworth Institute of Technology), artists, and young professionals moved into the area in the late 1990s and early 2000s. In the present day, there is much commercial and residential redevelopment. In 2014, a new tech-incubator called Smarter in the City launched its initiative to encourage growth in Roxbury by cultivating startups in Dudley Square.[27]

Currently the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) has cited twelve projects approved for construction in the neighborhood of Roxbury. The BRA project in Dudley square calls for the demolition of a ten unit building on Hampden St. and the rehabilitation of two buildings. The final project will have 42 units available for affordable housing, with units ranging from one to four bedrooms. This construction of Dudley will revamp the look of the community.[28] To improve the communities energy efficiency E+ buildings are beginning to develop in the neighborhoods of Boston. In April 2014, on Highland street the construction of the first E+ building in Roxbury was awarded the LEED platinum award. The building is part of the "Boston E+ Green Building Program" [29] In 2013, the city of Boston accepted the urban agriculture ordinance, which is stated in article 89.[4] The neighborhood of Roxbury is grounds for the first urban farm and is larger than 12,000 ft. The farm opened in July 2014.[4] The DSNI is composed of thirty five board of directors.The board of directors are made up of 16 residents which are African-American, Latino, Cape Verdean, and white, also there are 2 additional appointed residents, 4 youth representatives, 7 non profit agencies, 2 churches, 2 businesses and 2 CDCs'.[30] The DSNI has 225 housing units on their land trusts currently. The DSNI land trust allows for the sales of low income housing. The sale of the homes remain for those with low-income as a result of the DSNI land trust housing units. In the next decade the DSNI plans to build 250 new homes in what is known as the Dudley Triangle.[31] Roxbury is subject to article 80, a checklist for projects large and small to comply with people with disabilities. The article also includes, "improvements for pedestrian and vehicular circulation... new buildings and public spaces to be designed to enhance and preserve Boston's system of parks, squares, walkways, and active shopping streets, ensure that person with disabilities have full access...afford such persons the educational, employment, and recreational opportunities available to all citizens... and preserve and increase the supply of living space accessible to person with disabilities."[32]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
18204,135
18305,24726.9%
18409,08973.2%
185018,364102.0%
186025,13736.9%

"Today Roxbury is home to a diverse community which includes African American, Hispanic, and Asian families, along with young professionals".[33] The neighborhood has a total population of 59,626 people as of 2016. There are 21,116 males (46.1%) and 24,713 females (53.9%). Of the total population 33,182 (72.4%) are not Hispanic or Latino. White alone makes up 3,695 (8.1%) of the total population. There are 26,081 (56.9%) Black or African American people in the neighborhood of Roxbury. Asian alone is a total of 1,345 people (2.9%). Two or more races were reported by 1054 people (2.3%). Hispanic or Latino was reported by 12,647 people (27.6%).[34] 6,523-14.2% reported being 60 years and older.[35] Of the 45,829 surveyed 42,571 were over the age of five, the language spoken at home was recorded. Between the ages of 5-17 (8,898,20.9% of total population), 5,086 speak only English (57.2%), 2,508 (28.2%) speak Spanish. Between the ages of 18-64 (29,296-68.8% of total population) 17,040 (58.2%) speak only English. In this age group 7,440 (25.4%) speak Spanish, and 2,696 (9.2%) speak other European languages. Those surveyed who were 65 years and over (4,377-10.3% of total population) have 3,184 (72.7%) people that speak English at home, and 784 (17.9%) reported speaking Spanish at home.[35] Only 74.9% of the population has made it past 8th grade.[36] Educational attainment for the population 25 years and over was also surveyed. Of the 26,202, 5379 (20.5%) reported having earned a bachelor's degree or higher.[35]

The population density is very high at 13,346 people per square mile, compared to Boston as a whole at 12,812 people per square mile.[37] Roxbury is 4% more densely populated than Boston as a whole.[37] The crime rate is 39% higher than the national average, meaning 1 out of 25 people will become a victim.[38] The annual crime rate has gone down by 4% in 2016.[38] The median household income is $34,374 and the unemployment rate is 10.7%, which is more than double the national average.[39]Male median earnings are 41% higher than female median earnings.[39] Roxbury test scores in public schools are 38% lower than the national average.[36] 1/4 of the Roxbury population was born in another country.[40] 42% of the population is 25 years old or younger.[41] Meanwhile, only 11% of the population are over the age of 65.[41] 40% of the population drive to work, 36% take public transportation, 10% of the population walk to work, 10% bike to work, and 4% work from home.[41] Roxbury's crime rate is 7% higher than the national average for 2016.[42] The average home in Roxbury is worth $455,000 but the average home is sold for $380,000 because of Roxbury's reputation.[42] The cost of living in Roxbury is about 15% cheaper than the national average.[42]

Housing[edit]

There are many housing resources in Roxbury, including government housing, shelters, different organizations and Domestic Violence resources. Emergency Shelter Commission mission is to help prevent and end homelessness and hunger through proactive planning, policy analysis, program development and advocacy with our city, state, federal and community partner agencies. The Boston Fair housing helps Boston residents purchase, improve, and keep their homes. They offer training and financial help to first time buyers. There are different organizations such as MASS housing, Section 8 waiting list, Action For Boston Community Development and Mass Access. Mass Housing provides more than $16 billion for financing housing for home buyers and home owners. It will increase affordable housing for Massachusetts residents. Section 8 waiting list is a voucher program that opened on January 2003 in accordance with provisions contained in the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended. Action for Boston Community Development provides basic services and programs to help individuals, families and communities of Boston to overcome poverty live with dignity and achieve to their full potential.[43]

Project Bread, Food Project, and the Foodsource Hotline[edit]

Project Bread, located in East Boston, supports more than 400 community food programs in over 120 communities in Massachusetts. Funds raised throughout the year help support over 400 community food programs—soup kitchens, food pantries, food vouchers at health centers, subsidized CSA shares, community gardens, double-value farmers market coupons, etc.—in over 120 communities statewide in Massachusetts. This funding also targets the state's most vulnerable populations—children, working poor families, immigrants, and elders. They have much support from partners, donors, corporate sponsors, an individuals.[44] The Food Project has built a national model of engaging young people in personal and social change through sustainable agriculture. This program also helps with growing produce to help serve the community in farmers markets as well as donations to hunger relief organizations. The Food Project program works with around 120 teenagers a year and also benefits from the help of volunteers.[45] The BCYF (Boston Center for Youth and Families) The foodsource hotline is a toll-free hotline that responds to more than 46,000 calls a year from people across Massachusetts struggling to feed their families. FoodSource Hotline counselors refer callers to food resources in their community as well as provides them with information about school meals, summer meal sites for kids, elder meals programs, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as food stamps. They will screen callers for eligibility for SNAP and help them with the application. Their goal is to help the caller find as many resources as possible to put good food on the table. When relevant, they also connect callers with utility, fuel assistance, and MassHealth. And all information is kept strictly confidential.[46]

[edit]

The Green house garden is a program that assists low income families in obtaining fresh produce. The garden is a Roxbury community initiative to battle obesity rates. The Program is powered by two hundred volunteers who assist in planting the produce as well as maintenance. The BCYF (Boston Center for Youth and Families) Shelburne Community Center serves the Roxbury community. This community resource provides basketball leagues, classes (computer, digital media, martial arts etc.), physical fitness, teen mentoring and more. BCYF is an integral component to the Youth Standing Strong Against Violence program in partnership with the Boston Police Department. The BCYF mission statement reads "The mission of Boston Centers for Youth & Families (BCYF) is to enhance the quality of life of Boston's residents by partnering with various organizations to offer a wide range of comprehensive programs and activities according to neighborhood needs and interests."[47] The center is located at 2730 Washington Street, Roxbury Ma.The neighborhood of Roxbury opened a new area B-2 police station. The building is energy efficient and has state of the art technology to better equip the police in serving the Roxbury community.The mission of the police department is community policing. The new police station opened on August 1, 2011.[48] The police department created a team for woman to play basketball, it is led by deputy of the police department and invites women to play basketball. The team played against AAU all girls team coached by one of the officer of the department. In their mission to create solid bonds in the community and show positive role models.[49] The team plays at the Reggie Lewis Center at the Roxbury Community College. Project R.I.G.H.T is another community resource afforded to the Roxbury community. This organization is focused on connecting its community residents to matters of community stabilization and economic growth. Project R.I.G.H.T has teamed up with the Boston Public Health Commission, to "develop numerous programs that focus on substance abuse, eliminating health disparities, infectious disease control, neighborhood wellness and BPHC's Violence, Intervention and Prevention program."[50] The ExtraHelp program is also based in Roxbury, where it conducts its live recording at the Roxbury Community College. This program is a weekly television show that helps the student residents with questions, homework, as well as help preparing for the MCAS tests. The student members of the community can call or email the teachers. Programs air on Tuesdays during the fall and winter.[51] Adding to the focus on the youth Roxbury is also home to the Child Services of Roxbury. This program intends to assist troubled youth and also their families. This branch was created specifically to assist children that were living with substance abusing parents. The program has been efficient in decreasing risk factors for the youth by maintaining its family focused assistance. They provide early education services, behavioral health services, youth and family services, and housing services.[52] The Youth Build Boston program has a branch located at 27 Centre St, it has been a resource for the community of Roxbury for 25 years, starting in 1995. This program teaches young people trades and allows them to take on projects. It serves underprivileged children in the community with classes and workshops. The programs focus on 16-year-olds up to 24-year-olds.[53]

Environmental resources[edit]

The Environment, Energy and Open Space Cabinet oversees the Inspectional Services Department, the Environment Department, the Parks and Recreation Department, and oversees programs and policies on energy efficiency, green buildings, groundwater, park planning, recycling, renewable energy, and certain transportation issues.[54] The City of Boston continues to pursue energy-saving initiatives to conserve energy in municipal buildings and also encourage residents and businesses to improve their energy use. They are dedicated to the development and construction of public and private renewable energy systems throughout our community.[55] The Public Works Street Lighting Division is working to convert street lights from traditional lighting sources, such as mercury vapor and sodium, to LED.[56]

Renew Boston Solar is increasing the solar energy system capacity in Boston. With the assistance of U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative, the City of Boston launched Renew Boston Solar to encourage the widespread adoption of solar energy in Boston. Through Renew Boston Solar, the City is encouraging the installation of solar technology throughout Boston, including easing permitting requirements, mapping feasible locations, and planning the citywide bulk purchase, financing, and installation of solar technology. The city is working with local organizations to maximize Boston 's participation in state incentive programs and innovative financing initiatives. Plus the city is tracking and mapping solar and other renewable energy systems in Boston. Solar Boston partners include the U.S. Department of Energy, the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center, local utilities and unions, an anonymous foundation, and a broad range of local, regional, and national clean energy stakeholders.[57]

Recreational centers[edit]

The Roxbury YMCA was founded in 1851 in the Greater Boston which is a cause driven nonprofit organization committed to developing youth by informing them about healthy living and promoting social responsibility in the community. It is one of the largest urban YMCA's in the country and Boston s largest provider of social services for children and families. The Greater Boston YMCA offers programs in categories, including adult education, aquatics, child care, sports and health/wellness.[58]

The John A. Shelburne community center is a non-profit recreational, educational, and cultural enrichment facility located in the heart of historic Roxbury. The Hattie B Copper Community center served Leadership development for women of color for over 89 years. The Center was named after John A. Shelburne that was a native of Roxbury.[59]

In 1916, the Hattie B Cooper Center opened their doors to 69 children at the Fourth Methodist Church on Shawmut Avenue. They have served in the Roxbury community for nearly 100 years that provided programs facilitate growth and development, while creating opportunities for future successes. The women noticed a need in the community to educate the youth and keep them safe, the same issues that Cooper addresses today. They currently provide high quality care for early education and care to 125 students on the daily and children that are children that are in the infants and toddler program, Preschool, and After school program.[60]

The Reggie Lewis Center was opened in 1995 which was built by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This center serves as the home for the Roxbury Community College's powerful intercollegiate and intramural athletics. Known as the "Reggie" and one of the fastest tracks in the World. The "Reggie" hosts over ninety high schools, collegiate and national track meets annually and some have included meets such as the USA Trackand Field Championships, Boston Indoor Games, Northeast 10 Championships, NCAA Division II Championships and the High School National Championships. This center is a place for children and adults can attend to different sports such as basketball, track and soccer. They have community outreach programs that helps students stay out of trouble. There are after school programs to tutor students with their homework, physical activities and Arts and Crafts. Its a positive centers that changes people's lives for the better.[61]

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Students in Roxbury are served by Boston Public Schools (BPS). BPS assigns students based on preferences of the applicants and priorities of students in various zones.[62] Roxbury contains Boston Latin Academy, Madison Park Technical Vocational High School and John D. O'Bryant School of Mathematics & Science, 7-12 secondary schools and two of the city's three exam schools.[63] Roxbury Preparatory Charter School is a public charter school that serves Grades 6-8 in the Roxbury neighborhood of Mission Hill. Roxbury Charter High Public School is located elsewhere in the area.

Roxbury High School was once located on Greenville Avenue.[64]

The Boston Public Schools' pilot schools have a great partnership that was launched in 1994 among Mayor Thomas M. Menino, the Boston School Committee, superintendent, and the Boston Teachers Union. The pilot schools were created to be models of educational innovation and to serve as research and development sites for effective urban public schools. Pilot schools are part of the school district but have over budget, staffing, governance, curriculum/assessment, and the school calendar to provide increased flexibility to organize schools and staffing to meet the needs of students and families. Roxbury has six Horace Mann Charter Schools, which is also called the district charter schools. Alternative school is when a student that just came to America, helps students has a strong start in the Boston Public schools. There are other programs that help students that are over-age or off-track, who need to go to school at night, has disabilities, and has disciplinary issues. Turnaround schools allows Boston Public Schools to come into the school to assist their lowest-performing schools by changing the staff, increasing class time, and adding new supports for students. With these flexibilities, the "Level 4" schools can access new tools to that can increase improvement in performance.[65]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Roxbury is home to Roxbury Community College,"Roxbury Community College is a co-educational public institution of higher education offering Associate Degrees and certificate programs. RCC's primary objective is to provide residents of the Commonwealth, specifically those individuals living in the greater Boston area, optimum opportunity for access to a college education consistent with their interests and aptitudes and to reduce to a minimum economic, social, psychological and academic barriers to educational opportunity."[66] Beginning in the Fall semester from academic school year 2011-2013 Roxbury Community College has had an average female enrollment of 1761, and an average male enrollment of 868 in credit courses.[67] Through the years 2011-2013, the school has had an average of 1253 black students, 10 Native-American Indian students, 52 Asian American students, 426 Latino students, 167 White, 10 non-resident alien, and 710 students enrolled reported their ethnicity unknown.[66] Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary's Center for Urban Ministerial Education (CUME)opened in 1976 at Twelfth Baptist Church. The campus has over 400 students. To accommodate the diversity of the school, "classes are taught in English, Spanish, French Creole and Portuguese, with occasional classes in American Sign Language". The Roxbury campus is represented by students of 21 different nationalities and 39 denominations.[68] The college is located at 90 Warren St. in Roxbury, Ma. Emmanuel College's spiritual retreat center. This center offers spiritual education to all staff and students for no charge. The center is designed to promote a relationship with god and explore your own spirituality. Further, The Eastern Nazarene College offers Adult Studies/LEAD classes in Roxbury.

Public libraries[edit]

Boston Public Library operates the Dudley Branch Library in Roxbury. The branch, which opened in April 1978, replaced the Mount Pleasant Branch, a library branch, and the Fellowes Athenaeum, a privately endowed facility. Next to the Dudley Branch Library is the Dudley Literacy Center which assists patrons who are learning English as a second language. It is the largest public library literacy center in the Boston Public Library system. The Grove Hall Branch of the Boston Public Library, which was formerly located on Crawford Street since 1971, is now located at 41 Geneva Avenue in Dorchester/Roxbury. The Branch is in a new facility that opened in April, 2009.[69]

Other educational services[edit]

Boston Day and Evening Academy, located in Roxbury, re-engages off-track students in their education. It prepares them for high school graduation, post-secondary success and meaningful participation in their community. BDEA is open 10 hours a day in where it serves any Boston Public School student who is overage for high school, who has had trouble with attendance issues, has been held back in 8th grade, who feels they are not getting the attention in class that they need to succeed, or who has dropped out but is eager to come back to school to earn their diploma.[70] City on a Hill Charter Public School is a cluster of charter schools in Roxbury. It is a network of three college preparatory high schools in the cities of Boston and New Bedford. Each City on a Hill school is tuition-free and open to all students. CoaH schools do not have entrance exams; students are admitted by a random lottery with new students admitted in the ninth grade only.[71] City on a Hill serves students who are traditionally underserved by the public school system. The majority of students arrive performing significantly below grade level. However, 100% of City on a Hill students pass the MCAS, and 91% of recent graduates have enrolled in college.[71] While a fully-grown City on a Hill school operates almost entirely on state funds, they rely on private gifts to supplement the operating budget of growing schools, to provide capital support, and to fund special projects and educational initiatives.[71] As another example, Roxbury Preparatory Charter School (Roxbury Prep) began on Mission Hill in 1999, serving 75 students. By 2019, they will serve 1,800 students at three middle school campuses and a high school.[72] Roxbury Prep is a nonprofit organization that starts and manages outstanding urban charter public schools that prepare students to graduate from college. Charter schools are entitled to federal categorical funding for which their students are eligible, such as Title I and Special Education monies. Federal legislation provides grants to help charters to manage start-up costs.[73]

826 Boston is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting students ages 6 to 18 with their creative and expository writing skills, and to helping teachers inspire their students to write. This organization has programs like after school writing and tutoring, creative writing workshops, storytelling and bookmarking field trips, summer theater and writing camp, the in-school writing and publishing program, and college preparedness programs.[74] It is located on 3035 Washington Street in Roxbury. There is also the YouthBuildBoston (YBB)that was founded in 1990 with the goal of providing underserved young people with the support and credentials needed to successfully enter the trades. While YBB promotes the core values of youth development and community service, it stands out as an innovative non-profit offering a hands-on approach to building trades training. Students are put on a career path through highly successful programs, from construction training to sustainable landscape design. These programs provide opportunities in vocational education, but also academic instruction, counseling and other life skills that readily strengthen and prepare students for the workforce upon graduation.[53] YBB receives much support from scholarships and apprenticeships and YBB is located on 27 Centre Street, in Roxbury.

Entertainment[edit]

Sports[edit]

The popular local teams in the area consist of the Boston Red Sox (baseball), Boston Bruins (hockey), Boston Celtics (basketball), the New England Revolution (soccer), and the New England Patriots (football). Less well known local teams also include the Boston Breakers (women's soccer) and Boston Cannons (lacrosse). Other notable sporting annual events include the Boston Marathon on the third Monday of every April, also known in Massachusetts and Maine as Patriot's Day. Boston is also home to the Charles Regatta. The Charles Regatta has been the world's largest rowing competition for the last 46 years.[75]

Museums[edit]

Boston Children's Museum was founded in 1913 by the Science Teachers' Bureau, making it one of the largest children's museums in the world.[76] The Boston Children's Museum was originally created to instill a sense of wonder about science and the arts in Boston's youth.

The Hamill Gallery of African Art is 16,000 square feet owned by Bobbi and Tim Hamill housed in a 19th-century wallpaperfactory that Tim Hamill had purchased in the 1970s.[77] With over 40,000 pieces from Ghana, Mali and Nigeria they hope to educate the public about tribalism and the importance of authentic art.[78] Many of these objects preserve and convey beliefs and values about tribalism. The masks were typically used in costumes to dance for social structure, education, or entertainment as displayed through their 70 traveling exhibits.[77]

Parks[edit]

Several parks, including the urban wilds which surround the William J. Devine Memorial Golf Course, offer residents substantial green space.[79] Other parks including in the "urban wild" space are the Eliot Burying Grounds, the Puddingstone Garden and the Buena Vista Urban Wilds. These parks recently received $450k in grants to restore and revitalize the areas in the community.[80] Some other active parks are the Southwest Corridor Park, Highland Park, known as Fort Hill, along with the Elma Lewis Playhouse Park. The Emma Lewis Playhouse Park has annual concerts and other miscellaneous venues year round and the park is an active member of the Franklin Parks Coalition.[81]

Miscellaneous entertainment in Roxbury[edit]

The Roxbury Center for the Arts, Culture, and Trade, which opened in 2005, celebrates communityculture through visual and performancearts.[82]

Roxbury International Film Festival has been running since 1999 and was formerly known as the Dudley Film Festival, it was later changed to encompass all of Roxbury. The festival supports films with people of color or people of color who have created the films. For about four days, many different films are screened, to date more than 600 films have been screened at the festival.. The festival is New England's largest film festival that "showcases and honors the work of emerging and established filmmakers of color".[83] Along with screening of new independent films, the film festival also provides workshops for artists to come together and share ideas as well as learn new methods.

Roxbury has also held an Annual Mother's Day Walk for Peace since 2000.[84]

Public sculptures and murals can also be see down Ruggles Street and Malcolm X Boulevard.[85]

MainStage theater provided by the Roxbury Community College provides workshops for students and kids in the community. They also have public plays open to all. Also, public speakers visit the theater for open to the public speeches.

Historic buildings[edit]

Abbotsford — 300 Walnut Avenue
Abbotsford was built in 1872 for industrialist Aaron Davis Williams Jr. It was designed by architect Alden Frink. The structure, originally named Oak Bend, is an example of a VictorianGothic-style villa in Boston and a reminder of the 19th century prosperity. The home was once part of an estate known for its appleorchards; it later served as a school for delinquentboys. It was purchased in 1976 by the National Center of Afro-American artists and renovated for use as a museum dedicated to the collection and exhibition of the black visual artsheritage worldwide.[86]
Blue Hill Avenue Synagogue — 397 Blue Hill Avenue
Designed and built by architect Frederick Norcross in 1905. Financed by the Adath Jeshurun congregation, it was erected at a center of Jewish activity in early 20th century Boston. In 1967, the temple was sold to Ecclesia Apostolic because the Jewishpopulation was rapidly declining because of the white flight as the area became the heart of black culture in Boston. The First Haitian Baptist Church purchased the Late Romanesque Revivalbuilding in 1978 and restored it to its present state.[86]
Cedar Street Marble Row Houses — 28–40 Cedar St.
This marble-clad block is an example of Second Empire Style design, a French stylepopular at the time of Roxbury's annexation to Boston in 1868. Built by George D. Cox in 1871, the houses were an attempt to attract other developers by creating the base for a middle classurban square.[86]
Cox Building — John Eliot Square
Built in 1870 by developer G.D. Cox, this building typifies the post-Civil War reconstruction of Roxbury from an independent ruraltown to a suburbanneighborhood. The Cox Building originally consisted of a central section containing street-level stores with hotel rooms on the upper floors, flanked by five attached one-family residences.[86]
Edward Everett Hale House — 12 Morley St.
A Unitarianclergyman and well-known humanitarianreformer, lived in the Greek Revival residence for over forty years. He was also an author of many novels, including The Man Without a Country. The house was built on Highland Street in 1841 during the early period of suburban growth, and was moved to this location between 1899 and 1906.[86]
Eliot Burying Ground — Eustis St.
This has been the oldest cemetery in Roxbury. It was established in 1630 and named after Reverend John Eliot. He is buried in the Parish Tomb, along with other early ministers of the First Parish of Roxbury.[86]
First Church of Roxbury — John Eliot Square
The oldest wood frame church in Boston, this 1804 building is the fifth meetinghouse on this site since the first church was built in 1632. The architect, William Blaney, was a church member. The land around it is a fragment of the original town commons. Its most famous pastor was Reverend John Eliot, the missionary to the AlgonquinNative Americantribe. Due to Eliot's work, First Church in Roxbury was one of only three churches in the PuritanMassachusetts era to admit Native Americans as full-fledged members.[86]
Freedom House — 14 Crawford St.
The Freedom House was established in 1949 by social workersOtto and Muriel Snowden. The Freedom House is an important social, educational and political organization and gathering place for the neighborhoods of Roxbury, Mattapan, Dorchester and Jamaica Plain. It has been at the center of key political movements in Boston, including urban renewal in the 1960s, the bus crisis of the 1970s, and educationreform for the city's children beginning in the 1990s.[86]
Hibernian Hall — Dudley Square
Hibernian Hall was one of the last of Dudley Square's lively Irishsocial clubs and dance halls during the first half of the twentieth century. It began in 1836 in New York City as a response to anti-Irish sentiment, and later shifted to charitable work and the promotion and preservation of Irishcultural heritage.[87]
Landing Place — 500 Parker St.
This was one of two publicboat landing sites that served the town in colonial times. In 1658, John Pierpont built a tidal mill here at the point where the Stony Brook emptied into the tidal basin. In 1821, the Mill Dam was built for power. The Sewall and Day Cordage Mill was built here in 1834, which became the largest manufacturer of rope used in maritime trades.[86]
Malcolm X and Ella Little-Collins House — 72 Dale St
This was the home of Ella Little-Collins, an educator and sister of activist and MuslimleaderMalcolm X, who lived here in the early 1940s. Ella
Munroe House, built in 1683, as seen in 1905
Roxbury Town Hall built in 1810, as seen in 1899
The building where the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative organization is located.
This is a community gardens.
Medford, Massachusetts
City

Medford Square, the intersection of Main Street, High Street, Forest Street, Salem Street, Riverside Avenue, and Ring Road


Seal

Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts

Medford, Massachusetts

Location in the United States

Coordinates: 42°25′06″N71°06′24″W / 42.41833°N 71.10667°W / 42.41833; -71.10667Coordinates: 42°25′06″N71°06′24″W / 42.41833°N 71.10667°W / 42.41833; -71.10667
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyMiddlesex
Settled1630
Incorporated1630
City1892
Government
 • TypeMayor-council city
 • MayorStephanie Muccini Burke
Area
 • Total8.6 sq mi (22.4 km2)
 • Land8.1 sq mi (21.1 km2)
 • Water0.5 sq mi (1.3 km2)
Elevation14 ft (4 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total56,173
 • Estimate (2016)[1]57,213
 • Density6,500/sq mi (2,500/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code02153, 02155, 02156
Area code(s)781 / 339
FIPS code25-39835
GNIS feature ID0612778
Websitewww.medford.org

Medford is a city 3.2 miles northwest of downtown Boston on the Mystic River in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. In the 2010 U.S. Census, Medford's population was 56,173. It is home to Tufts University.

History[edit]

17th century[edit]

Medford was settled in 1630 as part of Charlestown.[2] The area was originally called "Mistick" by Thomas Dudley (a name which persisted for many decades), which his party renamed "Meadford".[3] The name may have come from a description of the "meadow by the ford" in the Mystic River, or from two locations in England that Cradock may have known: the hamlet of Mayford or Metford in Staffordshire near Caverswall, or from the parish of Maidford or Medford (now Towcester, Northamptonshire).[4] In 1634, the land north of the Mystic River became the private plantation of former Governor Matthew Cradock; across the river was Ten Hills Farm, which belonged to John Winthrop, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony.[5]

In 1637, the first bridge (a toll bridge) across the Mystic River was built at the site of the present-day Cradock Bridge, which carries Main Street into Medford Square.[6] It would be the only bridge across the Mystic until 1787, and as such became a major route for traffic coming into Boston from the north (though ferries and fords were also used).[7] The bridge would be rebuilt in 1880 and 1909.[6]

Until 1656, all of northern Medford was owned by Cradock, his heirs, or Edward Collins. Medford was governed as a "peculiar" or private plantation. As the land began to be divided among several people from different families, the new owners began to meet and make decisions locally and increasingly independently from the Charlestown town meeting. In 1674, a Board of Selectmen was elected, in 1684, the colonial legislature granted the ability to raise money independently, and in 1689, a representative to the legislature was chosen. The town got its own religious meeting room in 1690, and a secular meeting house in 1696.[7]

In 1692, the town engaged its first ordained preacher, Rev. John Hancock Sr., grandfather to John Hancock, first and third Governor of Massachusetts and famous revolutionary figure; during his time of service Rev. Hancock lived in Medford, serving until November 1693.[8][7]

18th and 19th centuries[edit]

The land south of the Mystic River, present-day South Medford, was originally known as "Mistick Field". It was transferred from Charlestown to Medford in 1754.[9] This grant also included the "Charlestown woodlots" (the Medford part of the Middlesex Fells), and part of what was at the time Woburn (now Winchester).[10] Other parts of Medford were transferred to Charlestown in 1811, Winchester in 1850 ("Upper Medford"), and Malden in 1879. Additional land was transferred to Medford from Malden (1817), Everett (1875), and Malden (1877) again.[4][11]

The population of Medford went from 230 in 1700 to 1,114 in 1800. After 1880, the population rapidly expanded, reaching 18,244 by 1900.[12] Farmland was divided into lots and sold to build residential and commercial buildings, starting in the 1840s and 1850s; government services expanded with the population (schools, police, post office) and technological advancement (gas lighting, electricity, telephones, railways).[11] Tufts University was chartered in 1852 and the Crane Theological School at Tufts opened in 1869.

Medford was incorporated as a city in 1892, and was a center of industry, including the manufacture of tiles and crackers,[13]bricks,[14]rum,[15] and clipper ships,[16] such as the White Swallow and the Kingfisher, both built by Hayden & Cudworth.[17]

Transportation[edit]

During the 17th century, a handful of major public roads (High Street, Main Street, Salem Street, "the road to Stoneham", and South Street) served the population, but the road network started a long-term expansion in the 18th century.[18] The Medford Turnpike Company was incorporated in 1803, but turned what is now Mystic Avenue over to the city in 1866. The Andover Turnpike Company was incorporated in 1805, but turned what is now Forest Street and Fellsway West over to Medford in 1830.[11]

Other major commercial transportation projects included the Middlesex Canal by 1803,[19] the Boston and Lowell Railroad in West Medford in the 1830s, and the Boston and Maine Railroad to Medford Center in 1847.

A horse-powered street railway began running to Somerville and Charlestown in 1860. The street railway network expanded in the hands of various private companies, and went electric in the late 1890s, when trolleys to Everett and downtown Boston were available.[11] Streetcars were converted to buses in the 20th century. Interstate 93 was constructed between 1956 and 1963.[20]

Gypsy moth[edit]

In 1868, a French astronomer and naturalist, Leopold Trouvelot, was attempting to breed a better silkworm using Gypsy moths. Several of the moths escaped from his home, at 27 Myrtle Street. Within ten years, the insect had denuded the vegetation in the neighborhood. It spread over North America.[21][22]

Holiday songs[edit]

In a tavern and boarding house on High Street (Simpson's Tavern) in the late 19th century, local resident James Pierpont wrote "Jingle Bells" after watching a sleigh race from Medford to Malden. Another local resident, Lydia Maria Child (1802–1880), made a poem out of the trip across town to her grandparents' house, now the classic song "Over the River and Through the Wood".

Other notables[edit]

Paul Revere's famous midnight ride traveled along Main Street, continuing onto High Street in Medford Square. An annual re-enactment takes place honoring the historic event.

The Peter Tufts House (350 Riverside Ave.) is thought to be the oldest all-brick building in New England. Another important site is the "Slave Wall" on Grove Street, built by "Pomp," a slave owned by the prominent Brooks family. The Isaac Royall House, which once belonged to one of Harvard Law School's founders, Isaac Royall, Jr., is a National Historic Landmark and a local history museum. The house was used by Continental Army troops, including George Washington and John Stark, during the American Revolutionary War.

George Luther Stearns, an American industrialist and one of John Brown's Secret Six. His passion for the abolitionist cause shaped his life, bringing him into contact with the likes of Abraham Lincoln and Ralph Waldo Emerson and starting The Nation magazine. He was given the rank of major by Massachusetts Governor John Andrew and spent most of the Civil War recruiting for the 54th and 55th Massachusetts regiments and the 5th cavalry.

Medford was home to Fannie Farmer, author of one of the world's most famous cookbooks—as well as James Plimpton, the man credited with the 1863 invention of the first practical four-wheeled roller skate, which set off a roller craze that quickly spread across the United States and Europe.[23]

Amelia Earhart lived in Medford while working as a social worker in 1925.

Elizabeth Short, the victim of an infamous Hollywood murder and who became known as The Black Dahlia, was born in Hyde Park (the southernmost neighborhood of the city of Boston, Massachusetts) but raised in Medford before going to the West Coast looking for fame.

Medford has sent more than its share of athletes to the National Hockey League; Shawn Bates, though born in Melrose, MA grew up in Medford, as did Keith Tkachuk, Mike Morrison, David Sacco, and Joe Sacco. Former Red Sox pitcher Bill Monbouquette grew up in Medford.

Medford was home to Michael Bloomberg, American businessman, philanthropist, and the founder of Bloomberg L.P.. He was the Mayor of New York City from 2002 to 2013. Mayor Bloomberg attended Medford High School and resided in Medford until after he graduated from college at Johns Hopkins University.[24] His mother remained a resident of Medford until her death in 2011.

The only cryobank of amniotic stem cells in the United States is located in Medford, built by Biocell Center, a biotechnology company led by Giuseppe Simoni.

Medford and the law[edit]

Medford was the location of some famous crimes:

  • One of the biggest bank robberies and jewel heists in world history[citation needed] happened on Memorial Day weekend in 1980, when several crooked officers of the Medford Police and Metropolitan District Commission Police forces robbed the Depositors Trust bank in Medford square. The book The Cops Are Robbers: A Convicted Cop's True Story of Police Corruption is based upon this event. Salvatore's Restaurant, located at 55 High Street in Medford Square, is partially in the same location as the bank that was robbed. The private dining room in the restaurant uses the bank's vault door as an entrance way, and the hole in the corner of the ceiling that the robbers crawled through was left intact for nostalgia.[citation needed]
  • An admitted Mob execution by Somerville's Winter Hill Gang of Joe "Indian-Joe" Notarangeli took place at the "Pewter Pot" cafe in Medford Square, now called the "Lighthouse Cafe."[25]
  • In October 1989, the FBI recorded a Mafia initiation ceremony held by the Patriarca crime family at a home on Guild St. in Medford.

Geography[edit]

Medford is located at 42°25′12″N71°6′29″W / 42.42000°N 71.10806°W / 42.42000; -71.10806 (42.419996, −71.107942).[26]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.6 square miles (22 km2), of which, 8.1 square miles (21 km2) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2) of it (5.79%) is water.

A park called the Middlesex Fells Reservation, to the north, is partly within the city. This 2,060-acre (8 km2) preserve is shared by Medford with the municipalities of Winchester, Stoneham, Melrose, and Malden. The Mystic River flows roughly west to southeast through the middle of the city.

Neighborhoods[edit]

People from Medford often identify themselves with a particular neighborhood.

  • West Medford
  • Fulton Heights/The Heights (North Medford)
  • Wellington/Glenwood
  • Station Landing
  • Brooks Estate
  • Lawrence Estates
  • South Medford
  • The Hillside

Demographics[edit]

See also: List of Massachusetts locations by per capita income

Historical population
YearPop.±%
17901,029—    
18001,114+8.3%
18101,443+29.5%
18201,474+2.1%
18301,755+19.1%
18402,478+41.2%
18503,749+51.3%
18604,842+29.2%
18705,717+18.1%
18807,573+32.5%
189011,079+46.3%
190018,244+64.7%
191023,150+26.9%
192039,038+68.6%
193059,714+53.0%
194063,083+5.6%
195066,113+4.8%
196064,971−1.7%
197064,397−0.9%
198058,076−9.8%
199057,407−1.2%
200055,765−2.9%
201056,173+0.7%
201657,213+1.9%
* = population estimate.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]
Source:
U.S. Decennial Census[39]

Irish-Americans are a strong presence in the city and live in all areas. South Medford is a traditionally Italian neighborhood. West Medford, the most affluent of Medford's many neighborhoods, was once the bastion of some of Boston's elite families— including Peter Chardon Brooks, one of the wealthiest men in post-colonial America, and father-in-law to Charles Francis Adams — and is also home to an historic African-American neighborhood that dates to the Civil War.[40]

As of the census[41] of 2010, there were 56,173 people, 22,810 households, and 13,207 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,859.9 people per square mile (2,633.4/km²). There were 24,046 housing units at an average density of 2,796.0 per square mile (1,073.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 78.6% White, 8.80% African American, 0.2% Native American, 6.9% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.8% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.4% of the population.

There were 22,810 households out of which 22.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.1% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city, the population was spread out with 13.8% under the age of 15, 14.3% from 15 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.7 years. For every 100 females there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males.[42]

The median income for a household in the city was $52,476, and the median income for a family was $62,409. Males had a median income of $41,704 versus $34,948 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,707. About 4.1% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.7% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.

Medford has three Public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable TV channels. The Public-access television channel is TV3, The Educational-access television is channel 15 and 16 is the Government-access television (GATV) municipal channel.

Education[edit]

Medford is home to many schools, public and private.

Elementary
Public

Main article: Medford Public Schools § Elementary Schools

  • Christopher Columbus Elementary School
  • Brooks Elementary School
  • John J. McGlynn Elementary School
  • Milton Fuller Roberts Elementary School
Private (non-sectarian)
  • Eliot-Pearson Children's School (PK-2)[43]
  • Gentle-Dragon Preschool (PK)[44]
  • Merry-Go-Round Nursery School (PK)
  • Play Academy Learning Center (PK-K)[45]
  • Oakland Park Children's Center (PK)
  • Six Acres Nursery School (PK-K) (non-sectarian, but run through Medford Jewish Community Center)[46]
Private (sectarian)
  • St. Joseph's (K-8)[47]
  • St. Raphael's (PK-8)[48]
Middle School

Main article: Medford Public Schools § Secondary Schools

  • John J. McGlynn Middle School
  • Madeline Dugger Andrews Middle School
High School
Public

Main article: Medford Public Schools § Secondary Schools

College
Private
Miscellaneous education
Private
  • The Japanese Language School of Boston[49][50]

Government[edit]

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 15, 2008[51]
PartyNumber of votersPercentage
Democratic16,58846.80%
Republican2,6107.36%
Unaffiliated16,05445.29%
Minor Parties1930.54%
Total35,445100%

Local government[edit]

  • Stephanie M. Burke, Mayor[52]
  • Edward P. Finn, City Clerk
  • Jennifer Dever Wood, Chief of Staff and Director of Personnel[53]
  • Shab Kahn, Chief Procurement Office[54]

City Council

  • Richard F. Caraviello, President
  • Frederick N. Dello Russo Jr., Vice President
  • Michael J. Marks
  • John C. Falco Jr.
  • Adam Knight
  • Breanna Lungo-Koehn
  • George A. Scarpelli

[55]

School Committee

  • Stephanie M. Burke, Chairperson
  • Erin DiBennedetto
  • Kathy Kreatz
  • Mea Quinn Mustone
  • Michael Ruggiero
  • Paul Ruseau
  • Paulette Van der Kloot

[56]

Local media & news[edit]

The City of Medford has several local news and media outlets:

Print[edit]

Television & other[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Numerous Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority bus lines go through Medford—specifically, the 80, 94, 95, 96, 99, 100, 101, 108, and 134 bus routes provide local service and direct connections to nearby areas in Arlington, Somerville, Cambridge, Malden, Charlestown, Winchester, and Woburn, while the 325 and 326 routes provide express service to downtown Boston and the 710 route is contracted to Joseph's Transportation, a Medford family-owned company. The 90, 97, 106, 110, and 112 bus routes additionally terminate at Wellington station with at most one other stop in Medford, providing a direct connection between Medford and nearby areas in Somerville, Everett, Malden, Revere, Chelsea, East Boston, and Melrose. On Medford's east side, Wellington station on the Orange Line provides a connection to Boston and the entire rapid transit system. On the west side, the Lowell Commuter Rail Line stops in West Medford Square.

Discussion of bringing the Green Line into Medford, as is mandated by environmental mitigation provisions of the Big Dig project,[63] is ongoing. On February 2, 2009, the state formally endorsed extending the Green Line through Medford, terminating near the intersection of Boston Avenue and Mystic Valley Parkway (Massachusetts Route 16). As proposed, the terminus would not have parking facilities. The extension would serve an additional 10,000 potential Green Line riders.

Joseph's Limousine and Transportation of Medford runs a bus line through the city and also picks up passengers going to other parts of Greater Boston or out of state.

Interstate 93 travels roughly north–south through the city. State routes passing through Medford include 16, 28, 38, and 60.

Points of interest[edit]

Further information: List of Registered Historic Places in Medford, Massachusetts

  • Tufts University: Though the Tufts campus is mainly located in Medford, the Somerville–Medford border actually runs through it. The school employs many local residents and has many community service projects that serve the city, especially those run through the Leonard Carmichael Society and the Jonathan M. Tisch College of Citizenship and Public Service, the latter of which especially emphasizes public service in Tufts' host communities.
  • Isaac Royall House, a 1692 house operated as a non-profit museum.
  • The Unitarian Universalist Church of Medford: Medford's first religious community since 1690.
  • Amelia Earhart residence, 76 Brooks Street
  • John Wade House, built 1784, added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975
  • Former site of Fannie Farmer's house, corner of Paris & Salem Streets
  • Grandfather's House
  • Grace Church, designed by H. H. Richardson
  • Gravity Research Foundation monument at Tufts University
  • Henry Bradlee Jr. House
  • Jingle Bells historical marker, High Street
  • Salem Street Burying Ground
  • Old Ship Street Historic District: Area around Riverside Ave (formerly Ship Street) containing many historic homes
  • United States Post Office–Medford Main, historic 1937 building

Notable people[edit]

  • Edwin Adams, (1834–1877), stage comedian of the 19th century[64]
  • Lou Antonelli, science-fiction writer
  • Rev. Hosea Ballou II, Minister of 1st Universalist and first president of Tufts College
  • Shawn Bates, professional hockey player, New York Islanders
  • Jessica Biel, actress, resident while attending Tufts University
  • Heber R. Bishop, 1840-1902, industrialist and financier
  • Michael Bloomberg, mayor of New York City (2002–2013)[65]
  • Dale Bozzio, lead singer of band Missing Persons, worked with Frank Zappa
  • Mary Carew, Olympic gold medalist sprinter, born in Medford
  • Terri Lyne Carrington, jazz drummer
  • John Ciardi, poet and translator of Dante
  • Lydia Maria Child, anti-slavery activist, writer of the poem "Over the River and Through the Woods"
  • Martha Coakley, former attorney general of Massachusetts
  • James O. Curtis (1804-1890), Medford shipbuilder who built ships powered by sail or by screw and steam
  • Thayer David, TV and film character actor
  • Edward Dugger (1894-1939), African American military commander
  • Amelia Earhart, pioneer aviator, born in Kansas, lived in Medford as a young woman
  • Fannie Farmer, culinary expert
  • Frank Fontaine, comedian and singer
  • Paul Geary, former drummer of hard rock band Extreme, music manager for acts such as Godsmack
  • ColonelEdward Needles Hallowell, merchant and commander of 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry in the American Civil War
  • Rev. John Hancock Sr., first ordained preacher of Medford, lived and served in Medford 1692–1693, grandfather to John Hancock, Governor of Massachusetts and famous revolutionary figure.[8]
  • Robert Kelly, comedian, Tourgasm, Comedy Central
  • Kathleen McCartney, president of Smith College, former dean of Harvard Graduate School of Education
  • Michael McDowell, screenwriter of Beetlejuice and The Nightmare Before Christmas and author of several notable Southern Gothic novels
  • Dave McGillivray, race director of Boston Marathon
  • Laurel McGoff, actress and singer
  • Maria Menounos, Miss Massachusetts Teen USA 1996, media personality (Entertainment Tonight, Access Hollywood and Extra), actress, professional wrestler
  • Bill Monbouquette, Major League Baseball pitcher 1958–1968 (Red Sox, Tigers, Yankees)
  • Priscilla Morrill, actress, played Edie Grant on the Mary Tyler Moore Show
  • John Forbes Nash, Princeton professor, winner of Nobel Prize in Economics
  • Julianne Nicholson, actress (Ally McBeal, Law and Order: Criminal Intent, August: Osage County)
  • Alexis Ohanian, founder of reddit
  • Mike Pagliarulo, Major League Baseball player (Yankees, Twins, Padres, Rangers, Orioles)
  • James Pierpont, writer of "Jingle Bells"
  • Rev. John Pierpont
  • Ruth Posselt, classical violinist
  • Robert D. Richardson, historian, grew up in the Osgood House
  • William Zebina Ripley, economist and racial theorist
  • Joe Rogan, comedian, podcaster, UFC host, host of Fear Factor
  • Mark Roopenian, NFL player
  • Isaac Royall, Jr., 18th Century benefactor of Harvard
  • David Sacco, NHL player
  • Joe Sacco, NHL player and coach
  • Claude Shannon, scientist, father of Information Theory and modern digital communications[66]
  • Elizabeth Short, aspiring actress, brutally mutilated and murdered, dubbed the "Black Dahlia" by the press
  • Clifford Shull, Nobel Prize-winning Americanphysicist
  • Rev. Clarence Skinner, Dean of Religion at Tufts University, minister Hillside Universalist Church (1917–1920), theologian and pacifist
  • George Luther Stearns, industrialist, one of John Brown's Secret Six, lead recruiter of 54th and 55th Regiments
  • Mark T. Sullivan, author who has written novels on his own and has co-authored three James Patterson novels
  • Paul Theroux, author
  • Keith Tkachuk, NHL player
  • Ed Tryon, halfback at Colgate University, elected to College Football Hall of Fame in 1963
  • Bob Tufts, Major League Baseball pitcher

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  2. ^Charles Brooks; William Henry Whitmore (1855). History of the Town of Medford, Middlesex County, Massachusetts: From Its First Settlement, in 1630, to the Present Time, 1855. J.M. Usher. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 21 September 2017. 
  3. ^History of the Town of Medford, p. 30
  4. ^ abHistory of Middlesex County, p. 158
  5. ^History of the Town of Medford, p. 39
  6. ^ abBencks, Jarret (2011-10-27). "Cradock Bridge to Be Replaced in 2012 or 2013 - Medford, MA Patch". Medford.patch.com. AOL Inc. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  7. ^ abcA Peculiar Plantation: 17th Century Medford
  8. ^ abJohn H. Hooper (1906). Proceedings of the Celebration of the Two Hundred and Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Settlement of Medford, Massachusetts, June, Nineteen Hundred and Five: Prefaced by a Brief History of the Town and City from the Day of Settlement. Executive Committee. p. 62. Retrieved 21 September 2017. 
  9. ^History of the Town of Medford, p. 5
  10. ^A Quiet Country Town: 18th Century Medford
  11. ^ abcdThe Emerging City: 19th Century Medford
  12. ^United States census
  13. ^Medford city history
  14. ^Making Bricks in Medford
  15. ^Medford Rum
  16. ^Medford-Built Sailing Ships
  17. ^Gleason, Hall (1937). Old Ships and Ship-Building Days of Medford. Medford, MA: J.C. Miller. p. 76. 
  18. ^History of the Town of Medford, "Roads" chapter.
  19. ^Medfordhistorical.orgArchived 2008-09-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^Bostonroads.com
  21. ^Forbush, E. H. (1896). The Gypsy Moth. Boston, MA: Wright & Potter. pp. 2–44. 
  22. ^"Learning from the Legacy of Leopold Trouvelot"(PDF). Bulletin of the ESA Summer 1989. Retrieved 2012-09-13. 
  23. ^Skating, National Museum of Roller. "National Museum of Roller Skating: Homework Help". www.rollerskatingmuseum.com. Retrieved 2018-01-24. 
  24. ^Town, Your (October 12, 2009). "New Michael Bloomberg biography takes a few jabs at Medford". The Boston Globe. 
  25. ^
1790 bird's-eye view from Bunker Hill of the "Malden Bridge" across the Mystic River, with Medford in the background.
1852 map of Boston area showing Medford and rail lines.